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A guide to using Chicago Style (17th ed.) for references and bibliographies. This guide covers both Author-Date and Notes/Bibliography system of citation.

Which Chicago Style Citation should you use?

Citation requires you to properly acknowledge the sources you use in your research and writing. This guide provides basic information on how to cite sources as well as examples for formatting citations in Chicago Style. 

The Chicago Manual of Style presents two basic documentation systems, Notes/Bibliography and Author-Date. Choosing between the two depends on the discipline. Your professor probably has a preference too, so make sure you ask!

The Chicago Manual of Style Notes/Bibliography system is used by scholars in history, arts, and humanities.

Citing sources in this style consists of two parts:

  1. A superscript number in the text (1) and corresponding note containing the full citation, placed either at the bottom of the page (footnote) or at the end of the paper (endnote).

  2. A bibliography at the end of the work. 

For examples of citations in Author-Date format, see the Chicago Manual of Style's Notes and Bibliography Sample Citations webpage and the Notes/Bibliography - Example tab of this guide. 

For information and examples of how to properly format ALL aspects of a paper using Chicago Manual of Style Notes/Bibliography system, see Purdue's Online Writing Lab Guide

The Chicago Manual of Style Author-Date system is used by scholars in the social sciences and natural sciences. 

Citing sources in this style consists of two parts:

  1. An in-text citation with the last name of the author(s), and the year the work was published. 

  2. A reference list at the end of the work. 

The in-text citation points the reader to the full information about the source found in the reference list. 

For examples of citations in Author-Date format, see the Chicago Manual of Style's Author-Date Sample Citations webpage and the Author-Date Examples tab of this guide. 


The Chicago Manual of Style

The 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style was published in 2010. The 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style was published in 2017. Both editions are acceptable to use as a reference, but when possible use the newest edition as it has some slight changes and improvements.   

And remember to always check with your instructor about their citation requirements and preferences for your research papers!

Citation Help Resources

Do you have a question this guide does not answer? Consider consulting the following resources. 

For in-person help, stop by the  Olin Library to get research help from a Librarian. You may also call the research help line at (407) 646-250Or, visit TJ’s Tutoring and Writing Consulting Center, also located in the Olin Library, to get citation help from a peer tutor

Why Cite?

Why should you cite your sources? 

  • To give credit to ideas that are not your own

  • To provide support for your argument (professor's love that!)

  • To enable your reader to find and read the sources you used -- this makes your research process transparent

  • To avoid Honor Code infractions and/or plagiarism!

What should you cite?

What should you cite?

  • Exact wording taken from any source, including freely available websites
  • Paraphrases of passages
  • Indebtedness to another person for an idea
  • Use of another student's work
  • Use of your own previous work

Note: You DO NOT need to cite common knowledge.